Imprisonment Timeline

2002
04/18 Yang flew from Boston to Beijing for a 10-day visit to China after 13 years in exile.
04/19
-04/26
Yang entered China from Beijing using someone else’s passport. He traveled all over China to cities rocked by protests of unemployed workers.
04/26 Yang called his wife from Kunming to tell her that he was stopped at the airport trying to purchase an airline ticket. Police searched his luggage, seized his documents and took him to a hotel.
04/27 Christina spoke to her husband on the phone while he was in a hotel near Kunming airport. He said two police officers were guarding him. Since then, she has heard no further word from him. Christina called on the public to pay attention to her husband’s situation. She planned to contact the U.S. Congress for help.
04/28 . The Chinese Democratic Party (Beijing Division) issued a statement on Yang’s case asking the government to release him and give him back his freedom and civil rights.
04/29
-present
Christina and supporters send letters to President Bush, the U.S. State Department, the Chinese ambassador, embassy and consulate asking for information about the case and Yang’s release. Among those involved include Rep. Christopher Cox, Rep. Barney Frank, Rep, Henry Hyde, Sen. Edward Kennedy, Sen. John Kerry, Rep. Tom Lantos, Rep. Chris Smith, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and the faculty at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.
04/29 House Representative Christopher Cox, chair of the Congress Republican Policy Committee, wrote to President Bush regarding Yang’s case.
04/30 The Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars in the US issued a statement, appealing to the Chinese government to release Dr. Yang Jianli.
05/03 The Foundation for China in the 21st Century issued a statement on the detention of its president Yang Jianli by the Chinese government.
05/05 Mr. Yu Haocheng, from Human Rights In China (an independent international non-governmental organization founded by Chinese scientists and scholars) issued a statement to show his support to Dr. Yang.
05/05 Chinaeweekly.com set up a special webpage for Yang Jianli to monitor the development of the events (http://www.chinaeweekly.com/).
05/05 New-China.org set up a specific webpage for Yang Jianli.
05/05 The Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars set up a specific webpage for Yang Jianli.
05/06 Twenty-six Chinese organizations in New York formed the “Dr. Yang Jianli Going Back to China Support Group”. This event was reported on the Voice of America Radio.
05/08 The Congressional Human Rights Caucus wrote to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
05/08 Congressmen Frank, Lantos, Smith, Wolf wrote a letter to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
05/08 Wang Dan, Hu Ping, Chen Jun and Wang Juntao issued a statement demanding the release of Dr. Yang.
05/10 The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Kong Quan confirmed at a press conference in Beijing “a man, who claimed to be Yang Jianli, entered China illegally with someone else’s passport. He was detained on April 26 while using a falsified identification card, attempting to board a domestic flight from Kunming to Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. He has violated China’s law and become a subject of an investigation by the law enforcement authority, which is looking into his true identity and illegal activities.”
05/11 In response to inquiries regarding Yang Jianli’s situation, the U.S. Department of State indicated that they had contacted the Chinese authorities, but received no further information.
05/13 Christina sent letters via the U.S. State Dept to the Chinese Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing Bureau of State Security and Beijing Bureau of Public Security asking for a formal notification of Yang’s detention.
05/14 Congressman Frank, Wolf wrote to Assistant Secretary Crane and US Ambassador Randt.
05/15 Yang Jianli’s friends in the Boston area formed the “Dr. Yang Jianli Going Back to China Support Group” and held a press conference.
05/15 Twenty of Yang Jianli’s schoolmates and colleagues at Beijing Normal University wrote a letter, urgently appealing to the Chinese government to resolve this issue appropriately and allow Jianli to unite with his family as soon as possible. The letter was faxed to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
05/16 Nobel Peace Laureate, Archbishop Desmond Tutu met with Yang Jianli’s wife, Fu Xiang. He said kind words to comfort her, and prayed for her husband’s safe return during a service at a church.
05/16 Harvard University President Lawrence H. Summers showed his concern for Yang Jianli to his Chinese hosts while he was visiting China. Dr. Yang Jianli received a second Ph.D. from Harvard.
05/18 U.S.-based dissident Bei Ling, a poet and magazine editor, appealed for Yang Jianli’s release.
05/22 Famous law professor Jerry Cohen volunteered to be the legal advisor for Yang’s case.
05/22 Senator John F. Kerry from Massachusetts wrote to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi, and urged the Chinese authorities to release Yang Jianli as soon as possible.
05/22 Senator Bob Graham from Florida wrote to the American Embassy in China, inquiring about the situation of Yang Jianli.
05/22 Inner Mongolia Democratic Party members wrote a letter to Fu Xiang, expressing their sympathy.
05/22 Christina was stopped at a Beijing airport and was not allowed to enter China, though she had a U.S. passport and valid entry visa to China. She was detained for two hours and then sent back to the United States.
05/23 . “Dr. Yang Jianli Going Back to China Support Group” in New York started a campaign to collect signatures.
05/24 Ms. Wang Xiuli, a laid-off worker, was taken away from her home by the Chinese police because she received Yang Jianli during his visit to China.
05/28 At a press conference of the International General Pardon, Wang Ce, chairman of the Alliance for a Democratic China – Chinese Liberal Democratic Party, strongly appealed to the Chinese authorities to stop infringing upon human rights and persecuting political dissidents.
05/29 The Mathematical Fields’ Medal Laureate Steve Smale, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley, wrote to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi on Yang Jianli’s behalf. Dr. Yang received his first Ph.D. from UC Berkley.
05/30 The Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars issued a statement on Chinese rejection of Fu Xiang’s entry to China.
05/30 Mark Lambert, the Human Rights Officer at the US Embassy in Beijing, wrote to Senator Bob Graham. He stated, “During our meetings with Foreign Ministry officials, we have stressed the United States Government’s strong wish that the case be handled quickly, ideally by Mr. Yang being allowed to leave China. To date, the Chinese have given no indication of how they will resolve Mr. Yang’s case ¡­, we are actively pressing Chinese authorities for information on his case and for a quick resolution.”
06/02 Wang Xiuli’s husband Cui Shiming wrote an article, strongly requesting the Chinese authorities to release his wife and Yang Jianli.
06/02 The Taiwan Association for Human Rights and the Peacetime Foundation of Taiwan held the “Supporting the Democracy Activist Yang Jianli” Press Conference. After the conference, the attendees signed on the “Human Rights Tree” to show their support to Yang Jianli.
06/02 The Europe “Dr. Yang Jianli Going Back to China Support Group” was established and issued a statement.
06/04 Democracy activists demonstrated in front of the Bonn Office of the Chinese Embassy in Germany.
06/04 Democracy activists in Paris protested in front of the Chinese Embassy. Professor Marie Hauzmann from the “Chinese Home of Democracy” requested the signatures of the participants as well as those who were on site to support the release of Dr. Yang. The request was received widely.
06/06 Nobel Peace Laureate, Archbishop Desmond Tutu wrote to the Chinese Ambassador to show his concern for Yang Jianli’s case.
06/08 The family of Yang Jianli has not received official notice of his detention, which must be presented for a defense lawyer to proceed with his case, said Yang’s brother, who asked that his name not be used. He said the government’s failure to issue such a notice violated the Chinese law.
06/13 Freedom Now filed a Petition before the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, an independent and impartial body which seeks to find missing persons on behalf of their families.
06/14 Yang Jianli’s brother had traveled to Beijing from the family home in Shandong Province to seek information, but was unable to gain even verbal confirmation of Yang Jianli’s arrest. He had visited the Police Ministry, the State Security Ministry, and the Foreign Ministry, with no avail.
06/14 Yang Jianli’s old mother (in her seventies) and his two sisters went to the Chinese Embassy inquiring about his case.
06/17 The Foundation for China in the 21st Century held its annual meeting in Hawaii. A statement was issued to appeal for Yang Jianli’s immediate release.
06/18 Epoch Times interviewed Fu Xiang.
06/18 The Town of Brookline in Massachusetts sent a letter to the Chinese Ambassador.
06/20 The New Zealand “Yang Jianli – Wang Xiuli Support Group” was established.
06/21 Police in Linyi city in China called Yang Jianjun, Yang’s brother, and informed him that his brother had been formally arrested on June 2 and was in a jail in Beijing. Police did not provide a copy of the arrest warrant and did not say where exactly Yang was being held and what the charges were.
06/23 Ms. Wang Xiuli, who received Yang Jianli during his visit was released. She left Beijing by train.
06/25 Dr. Yang’s wife, Fu Xiang went to Washington D.C. from Boston on a hardship leave from Harvard University where she works. She went to the Chinese Embassy to apply for a visa to visit her husband. She was told that the embassy must obtain permission from the Chinese authorities before issuing her a visa.
06/25 Senator Chuck Hagel from Nebraska called the Chinese Embassy in Washington D.C.
06/26 The World Movement for Democracy issued a “democracy alert” for Yang Jianli.
06/26 Senator Max Baucus from Montana called the Chinese Embassy.
06/26 Senator Jesse Helms from North Carolina called the Chinese Embassy.
06/26 Fifty democracy activists from five western provinces in China appealed to the Chinese authorities for Yang Jianli’s release.
06/27 House Representative Christopher Cox, chair of the Congress Republican Policy Committee, met with Yang Jianli’s wife, Fu Xiang, in his office.
06/27 Congresswoman Connie Morella wrote to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
06/28 Because the police did not provide Yang Jianli’s family with a copy of the arrest order, his brother Yang Jianjun said that he had spent the past week on buses, taxis and trains trying to obtain the document, which is needed for a lawyer to begin any defense in China.
06/28 Congress member Ed Royce from California met with Ms. Fu Xiang in his Washington D.C. office.
06/28 Massachusetts Congressional Delegation wrote a letter to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi. They are Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Senator John F. Kerry, House Representatives Sander M. Levin, Tom Lantos, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Christopher H. Smith, Barney Frank, Frank R. Wolf, Edward J. Markey, John Olver, William D. Delahunt, and Michael E. Capuano.
06/28 The Taiwan “Black List” victims wrote an open letter to the Chinese President Jiang Zemin, requesting that he order the police and security personnel to allow the family and relatives to visit Yang Jianli. Furthermore, they asked the president to apply the Chinese and international laws to protect the detainees’ rights, free them or provide them with a fair and just trial.
06/29 Over 170 Chinese political activists from 20 provinces and cities have rallied around the detained scholar Yang Jianli, expressed and showed their serious concerns, and demanded the release of all political prisoners and the permission for other political activists in exile around the world to go back to China.
07/01 Yang Jianli’s wife, mother and sisters as well as his two children went to the Chinese Embassy in Washington D.C. to present his case again.
07/01 The U.S. State Department notified Christina that Yang Jianli was formally arrested on June 21 and was not yet charged. They expected the charges to be for crossing the Chinese border illegally.
07/03 Zhao Changqing, who organized the signature campaign for Yang Jianli is missing. It is believed that he is detained by the Chinese authorities.
07/12 7/12. Over 200 people from outside China wrote to the Secretary General Kofi A. Annan of the United Nations, asking him to intervene in this matter and to call for an investigation of the detention of Dr. Yang Jianli.
07/12 The China Desk at the State Department notified Christina that Yang Jianli is being held at Beijing City Public Security Facility, but his exact location was not disclosed.
07/19 AAccirding to “Harvard Crimson”, The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs told the U.S. embassy that notice of Yang¡¯s arrest will be issued to his family soon, although they did not say when that will be. The ministry also disclosed that Yang is being held in the Beijing City Public Security Bureau Detention House. Yang, who is so far only under investigation, will most likely be charged for crossing the Chinese border illegally, according to a statement issued by the U.S. State Department on July 1.
07/27 Liu Gang drafted an appeal for the release of Yang Jianli, Wang bingzhang etc.
07/29 Wang Ce, chairman of the Alliance for a Democratic China – Chinese Liberal Democratic Party, asked for the release of Yang Jianli, Yue Wu, Wang Bingzhang.
08/07 U.S. congress member Fortney Pete Stark wrote to Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi to show his concern of Dr. Yang Jianli.
08/13 Senator Jesse Helms and Senator Joe Biden wrote to Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
08/23 Amnesty International issued an urgent action appeal on Yang Jianli.
08/23 Congressman Chris Cox wrote to Deputy Secretary Armitage.
09/09 Poland senator Zbigniew Romaszewski wrote to the Chinese Ambassador.
09/09 13 U.S. congressmen appealed to Jiang Zemin to release Yang Jianli.
09/09 Massachusatts congressional Delegations wrote a letter to secretary Colin Powell.
09/09 Foundation for China in the 21st Century published an open letter to President Jiang Zemin.
09/13 Senior officials of the Department of State’s Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs raised the case with the Chinese Embassy in Washington D.C.
09/16 34 Faulty of Harvard University wrote to Secretary of State Colin Powell.
09/16 Members of congress Frank, Lantos, Ros-Lehtinen and Wolf wrote to Secretary of State Colin Powell.
09/19 27 U.S. house of representatives wrote a letter to the Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
09/20 Congressman Chris Cox wrote to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
09/26 Officers at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing discussed the case with officials at the Ministry of Foriegn Affairs of the People’s Republic of China.
09/27 Thirty-four professors from the Kennedy School of Government (KSG), including Dean Joseph S. Nye, appealed to the Chinese government last week to release Yang Jianli, a KSG graduate who has been detained in China for five months.
09/27 U.C. Berkeley Chancellor Robert M. Berdahl wrote to the Ambassador to China Clark T. Randt, JR.
09/30 The UN High Commissioner on Human Rights, Mary Robinson, stated during a forum at Harvard University that she raised Yang’s case while she was in China in August.
10/01 Fu Xiang wrote to President Jiang Zemin via the State Department of the United States. Also, Yang’s sister Yang Jianhua wrote to President Bush and asked him to help Yang Jianli.
10/01 Clergy of All Saint Parish of Brookline, MA wrote to Bishop Griswold.
10/10 Episcopal Bishop of this Diocese of Massachusetts wrote to President Bush requesting that all possible means be made available to hasten the release of Dr. Yang and his return to his family.
10/15 The U.S. government submitted a list of names to the Chinese government before Jiang Zemin’s visit, asking that they are released. This list includes Yang Jianli.
10/17 Representative Cox and Frank held press conference, urging the Chinese authority to release Yang Jianli.
10/19 Harvard University President Lawrence H. Summers wrote a letter to Ambassador of the People¡¯s Republic of China to the United States Yang Jiechi.
10/20 Multiple organization signed an open letter to President Jiang Zemin, urging him to help release Yang Jianli.
10/21 SenatorTed Kennedy and Senator John Kerry wrote to Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
10/22 The Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars, USA (IFCSS) appealed to President Jiang Zemin, asking him to free all political prisoners including Yang Jianli.
10/22 Human Rights Watch appealed to Chinese President Jiang Zemin to take the opportunity of his summit with U.S. President George Bush to release all of China’s political prisoners. “If Saddam Hussein can do it in Iraq, why not President Jiang?”
10/27 Initiator of “Global China Promotion Society” Sun Xuejian expressed his hope of releasing Yang Jianli after President Jiang’s visit to the U.S.
11/07 The Foundation for China in the 21st Century presented the Third Annual Interethnic Leadership Conference. Attendees signed an open letter to President Bush, urging him to make effort to rescue Yang Jianli.
11/09 Amnesty International held its NorthEastern Region Conference at Boston University. Christina Fu was invited to speak.
11/15 Congressman Barney Frank wrote to Yang Jianli’s children Aaron and Anita.
11/20 Professor William Alford of Harvard Law School wrote to Assistant Secretary Craner.
12/02 Humanist Chaplaim Tom Ferrick of Harvard University wrote to Assistant Secretary Craner.
12/09 U.S. Congress held testimony on China human rights issues. Christina Fu was invited to speak. She asked for more helps from the U.S.
12/09 Freedom Now filed a petition before the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, an independent and impartial tribunal of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights. A decision is expected in May 2003.
12/11 Congressmen Cox, Capuano, Frank, and Smith wrote to Assistant Secretary Craner.
12/16 Professor Hoviden Huscamp of Harvard Medical School wrote to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
12/23 Amnesty International issued another urgent action appeal on Yang Jianli.
12/24 Congressman Henry Hyde raised the case of Yang Jianli when he met Chinese president Jiang Zemin in Beijing.
12/26 After the 13th U.S.-China dialogue on human rights, Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Lorne W. Craner indicated that the Chinese authority would not release Yang Jianli.
12/30 Congressman Michael Capuano wrote to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
2003
01/13 U.S. Congressman Michael Capuano (D-MA) raised Yang Jianli’s case with Chinese president Jiang Zemin.
01/19 Speaker for the preparatory committee of China Patriotic Democratic Party Qing Shuijun published an open letter to President Jiang Zemin, asking him to free Yang Jianli and other political prisoners.
01/20 Christina Fu wrote to President Jiang Zemin every day until the Chinese New Year.
01/31 Chinese Labor Party called for “yellow ribbon action” on the Chinese New Year eve for those jailed for political views.
02/01 Yang Jianli’s family members and relatives held hunger strike in front of the Chinese ambussy on the Chinese New Year day.
02/01 The Laogai Research Foundation sent a letter to Christina Fu.
02/01 China Information Center sent a letter to Christina Fu.
02/04 Chinese Democratic Party New Zealand Committee wrote a comfort letter to Yang Jianli’s wife Ms. Christina Fu.
02/10 A website aiming to rescue Yang Jianli www.yangjianli.com is established.
02/13 Dr. Yang’s family hired Mo Shaoping, a prominent Chinese criminal defense lawyer who has represented a number of high-profile dissidents before the Chinese judicial system.
02/14 Yang Jianli’s brother and sister went to Beijing this week in their latest search for answers, which has been fruitless so far. China’s State Council indicated that Mr. Yang was originally detained for the false passport, but the authorities “discovered that Yang was suspected of other criminal activities. The judicial department is now carrying on further investigation on him in accordance with the law,”
02/19 Yang Jianli’s defense lawyer make his first request to meet his client, but was rejected by the Chinese authority.
02/20 U.S. Congress held hearing on Yang Jianli’s case.
02/21 American Foreign Policy Council wrote a letter to Jiang Zemin.
02/21 Eleven members of Congress write to Hu Jintao request release of Yang Jianli in conjunction with Secretary of State Colin Powell’s visit to Beijing: Sen. Ted Kennedy, Sen. John Kerry, Rep. Michael Capuano, Rep. Chris Cox, Rep. William Delahunt, Rep. Barney Frank, Rep. Tom Lantos, Rep. Nancy Pelosi, Rep. Ed Royce, Rep. Chris Smith and Rep. Chris Van Hollen.
02/24 Albert Santoni, President of American Foreign Council, Asia-Pacific Initiative wrote to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
02/24 “Human Rights in China” donated US$2000 to Jianli Defense Fund.
02/27 Six members of Congress write to Secretary Colin Powell request his intercede on behalf of Yang Jianli: Rep. Dan Burton, Rep. Lincoln Diaz-Balart, Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart , Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Rep. Dana Rohrabacher and Rep. Chris Smith.
02/27 U.S. Ambassador Randt raised Yang Jianli’s case in a meeting with a senior Foreign Ministry official.
03/05 “SupportJianLi” is established on Yahoo Group.
03/06 Yang Jianli’s Family seeks donation to cover an expected high lawsuit cost.
03/06 National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice writes to Christina Fu.
03/12 Congressman Barney Frank wrote to Mr. Joinet of United Nations Working group.
03/21 Harvard University chaplain writes to the vice president of the United States
03/31 U.S. State Department releases its Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2002) in which it mentions Yang Jianli’s case.
04/03 Yang Jianli’s thesis advisor Professor Richard Zeckhauser writes to U.S. vice president Dick Cheney.
04/08 Christina Fu is invited to give a speech at Brookline Clergy Association Conference.
04/09 Christina Fu had an interview with the host Doug Stephan of nationally syndicated radio morning show Good Day USA.
04/11 In the U.S. House of Representatives, a bipartisan group of 12 Members of Congress (Neil Abercrombie, Michael Capuano, Christopher Cox, William Delahunt, Barney Frank, Tom Lantos, Edward Markey, James McGovern, John Olver, Joseph Pitts, Dana Rohrabacher, and Christopher Smith) introduced a resolution calling for Dr. Yang Jianli’s release.
04/14 Amnesty International’ held its annual “Get on the Bus!” protest. Christina Fu is invited to give a speech. Aason went with his mother.
04/23 Christina Fu and her legal adviser Jared Genser had a TV interview with the voice of America. Congressman Christopher Cox accepted phone interview in this one-hour program.
04/24 Candlelight Vigil was held in Wahsington D.C., New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Taipei, Australia, New Zealand, France, Holland.
04/24 Christina Fu and Congressman Barney Frank had an interview with BBC at vigil site.
04/25 Candlelight Vigil was held in Boston.
04/27 Christina Fu was invited to the Amnesty International USA’s 24th Annual Spring Benefit Concert.
05/06 Four members of the U.S. congress house representatives write a letter to all members asking for support of H.Res.199.
05/06 The campaign to lobby the U.S. congress for a recently introduced resolution H.RES199.
05/11 Dr. Jianli Yang and Christina Fu Received Spirituality and Justice Award from All Saints Parish.
05/01 U.S. Representatives Cox and Frank write to President Bush.
05/28 United Nations working group on arbitrary detention ruled that Yang Jianli has been held by the Chinese government in violation of international law for more than a year.
05/31 Jianli Yang receives the 17th Anniversary of Chinese Democracy Education Foundation Award.
06/04 The Beijing Bureau of the Ministry of State Security completed the investigation.
06/04 Congress members Rep. Christopher Cox, Rep. Barney Frank, Rep. Michael E. Capuano and Yang Jianli’s wife Christina Fu held a press conference and announced the ruling of NU’s working group on arbitrary detention.
06/05 The PRC responded stating they are acting fully in accordance with law.
06/05 The U.S. State Department, through spokesman Phillip Reeker, formally called for Dr. Yang¡¯s release.
06/10 Martin Callanan MEP (UK), Roger Helmer MEP (UK), and Lennart Sacredeus MEP (Sweden) wrote to President Hu Jintao.
06/12 The House International Relations Committee unanimously passed House Resolution 199.
06/23 Assistance to President Bush for National Security Affairs Condoleezza Rice wrote a letter to Rep. Frank. She said, the Bush Administration “will continue to do so until he is reunited in the United States with his family.”
06/25 The U.S. House passed H.Res.199.
06/25 The U.S. Senate introduced S.Res.184.
06/25 Foundation For China In the 21st Century wrote a letter to all senators.
06/26 China says US criticism ‘unacceptable’.
06/27 Professor Roderick MacFarquhar writes to M.A. senators, asking their support for S.Res.184.
07/08 Yang Jianli met laywer Mo Shaoping. It is said that he will be charged with espionage, illegal entry.
07/11 Senator Jon Kyl publishes an article “China Watch” and critisized China holding Yang Jianli.
07/11 Christina appeals to all senators, asking their support for S.Res.184.
07/13 Arizona senator Jon Kyl publishes his article “China Watch”.
07/14 Yang Jianli is indicted by the Chinese government on charges of espionage and entering the country illegally
07/15 This July 15 was the 40th birthday of Dr. Yang Jianli. His wife, Christina and two children, Anita and Aaron, flew to Washington D.C. from Boston in order to deliver a birthday card made by the children, who wanted to have it passed to their beloved dad via the PRC Embassy. No one came out to accept this card.
07/21 Yang Jianli met laywer Mo Shaoping for the seoncd time.
07/23 S.Res184 passed in the Senate FR committee unanimously.
07/23 Free Church for China writes to N.Y. senators and asks them to support S.Res.184.
07/24 Yang Jianli wrote his son. The letter was not recieved.
07/25 Yang Jianli’s closed trial is now scheduled for Monday August 4, 2003, at 9 am in Beijing.
07/29 U.S. Senate Unanimously Passes Resolution Demanding Release of Imprisoned Chinese Activist Yang Jianli.
07/30 IFCSS issues a statement demanding an immediate release of Dr. Yang Jianli.
07/31 “Radio Freedon Asia” broadcasted a special program on Yang Jianli. Gao Zhan was invited to talk about him.
08/01 An open letter to Chinese President Hu Jintao was sent to the Chinese Embassy in Washington D.C. More than 400 names of individuals from all over the world was sent with the letter. It is one more attempt to call for attention of Mr. Hu before trial starts on August 4.
08/01 The Chinese government has rejected a request from the U.S. embassy to attend the Beijing espionage trial Monday of democracy activist Yang Jianli.
08/01 Christina Fu is not allowed to be with her husband during the trial. The Chinese suspect she was involved in Jianli’s use of false documents to enter the country illegally.
08/03 While Dr. Yang Jianli stood on trial in Beijing, his friends stood together at his family’s church, All Saints Parish, in Brookline, Massachusets for a prayer service conducted by the Reverend Leslie Sterling. The service took place at 9:00 p.m. on Sunday, August 3rd which was Monday morning, August 4th in Beijing, the time of the trial.
08/04 A court in Beijing held a three-hour trial Monday for Yang Jianli charged with spying and adjourned without saying when it would issue a verdict. Both Yang Jianli and his lawyer pleaded not guilty.
08/04 Yang Jianli issued “Not Unnecessary Words –My Closing Statement in the Court”
08/04 The United States called on China to free Yang Jianli tried in a closed-doors court case on spying charges. “We’ve raised the case repeatedly with senior Chinese officials, and we urge that Dr Yang be released and allowed to return to his family here in the United States,” US State Department deputy spokesman Philip Reeker said.
08/04 The Taiwan Association for Human Rights held a press conference to publicize its view that China was using the cross-strait impasse to stifle the pro-democracy movement.
08/05 Minnesota Chinese Democracy Foundation wrote a letter to President Bush.
08/05 Supporters at Jianli’s Church wrote a letter to President Bush.
08/22 The Support Group starts campaign to send post cards to Dr. Yang Jianli.
08/23 AI issued urgent action on Yang Jianli.
09/04 Chinese Democratic Part (Beijing-Tianjing-Shanxi) sent gretting to political prisoners including Yang Jianli.
09/08 Chinese court postponded verdict on Yang Jianli, because the prosecutor wanted to gather additional evidence.
09/11 U.S. State Department, Assistant Secretary Kelly spoke at Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s hearing on U.S.-China Relations in which Yang Jianli’s case was quoted as an evidence.
09/11 US Ambassador critisizes China’s human right records in which Yang Jianli’s case was quoted as an evidence.
09/21 Benefit Dinner for the Jianli Defense Fund was held. Congressman Barney Frank was given Distinguished Service Award.
10/02 The U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China has released its 2003 Annual Report. It mentioned Yang Jianli at three places.
10/03 Gene Sharp of Albert Eistein Institution wrote to Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
10/06 Rep. Christopher Cox and Rep. Barney Frank write to colleagues in the House of Representatives, asking to sign a letter to President Bush.
10/10 “Democracy China” expressed their desire to have Yang Jianli etc. been release when their representative Mike Du met with Canadian officials.
10/16 36 Members of Congress Urge President Bush Raise Dr. Yang Jianli’s Case in his Meeting with Chinese President Hu Jintao.
10/24 Chinese Labor Party appeals to Hu Jintao for the release of Yang Jianli and other political prisoners.
11/10 The Support Group starts second round of campaign to send post cards to Dr. Yang Jianli.
11/19 the Beijing Municipal No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court notified Jianli and his lawyer about a second hearing scheduled for Nov 21, 2003. At that time, the court indicated that the prosecutors had completed their two-month post trial investigation.
11/21 The second trial was scheduled today but was canceled.
11/25 Congressmen Chris Cox and Barney Frank wrote to colleagues and ask them to sign on a letter to Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao.
12/2 Chinese court passed the deadline to issue a verdict on Yang Jianli’s case which violated the Chinese law again.
12/05 Eight senators, including three members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, asked President Bush in a letter to discuss the case of Boston scholar Yang Jianli with the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao.
12/05 33 members of the U.S. House sent a letter to Wen Jiabao, saying that releasing Yang would be a “humanitarian gesture” that would “greatly enhance your country’s standing internationally.”
12/08 Christina Fu requests to the Chinese Embassy in Washington for a meeting with Wen Jiabao but did not receive any response.
12/08 A letter from Harvard University Law School with 29 faulty signatures were sent to Wen Jiabao via Chinese Embassy via FedEx.
12/09 C-SPAN conductes a half hour interview with Christina Fu on Washington Journal program.
12/10 A letter from Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government and Medical School with 78 faulty signatures were sent to Wen Jiabao via Chinese Embassy via FedEx.
12/16 Christina Fu spoke at a meeting of Belmont/Watertown¡¯s Amnesty International (AI) Group #365 held at The First Parish of Watertown.
12/23 Brookline Tab names Yang Jianli as one of 2003 Tab 10.
12/26 Yang Jianli wrote “Some of my thought” in prison. (It was published in June 2005.)
12/30 “ChineEWeekly” board expresses their thanks to public for support of Yang Jianli.
2004
01/18 Christina Fu wrote to Ambassador Yang and for the release of her husband.
01/20 Mo Shaoping filed a document with the Administrative Office of Prisons and Detention Centers, under the Chinese Supreme People’s Prosecutor.
01/20 Freedom-Now sent letters to U.S. congress members for assistance on Dr. Yang Jianli’s case.
01/26 Christina Fu wrote to support to show her appreciation of their helps.
01/28 Ambassador Yang Jiechi replied to Harvard faculty by repeating the Chinese official statements on Yang Jianli.
02/02 State Department official Randy Schriver said that U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage, who was in China last week, had also brought up the case of Yang Jianli.
02/05 Mo Shaoping filed a document with the Beijing Municipal No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court. The Chinese People’s Supreme Prosecutor sent a letter to the Beijing Second People’s Prosecutor to order them to investigate the delay and report back as soon as possible. This letter was also copied to the Chinese Supreme People’s Court.
02/05 A campaign to rescue Qing Shuijun and Yang Jianli started.
02/13 Jared Genser wrote to supporters in which he indicated that approximately 15 offices of U.S. Senators and Members of Congress called Ambassador Yang Jiechi’s office at the Chinese Embassy to express deep concern over the Chinese Government breach of their own laws by their failure to issue a verdict by the December 19, 2003 deadline.
02/17 The “CAMPAIGN FOR ABOLISHMENT OF LAOJIAO CONCENTRATION CAMP” published a report “People’s Republic of China Stronger Iron Fist Imposed on Dissidents since the Change of State Leaders” quoted Yang Jianli’s case.
02/24 Rep Smith, Christopher H. introduced House Resolution 530, calling on the U.S. Government to raise a resolution on China’s human rights record to the U.N. Commission on Human Rights and calling on the PRC to address their major human rights violations, including releasing of major prisoners of conscience including Yang Jianli. The resolutoin was co-signed by 43 U.S. House of Representatives.
02/25 the House International Relations Committee passed House Resolution 530.
02/25 China has been “backsliding on key human rights issues,” the State Department said in its annual report on the state of human rights worldwide. Yang Jianli’s name was cited 5 times.
03/02 Yang Jianli planned to launch a hunger strike to protest his 22-month-old detention on espionage charges starting on March 3.
03/03 Yang Jianli decided to postpone his hunger strike for a week.
03/07 The Ovesea Chinese Democracy Coalition (Australia) published a statement to suport Yang Jianli on his hunger strike.
03/08 Editors from the “Democracy and Freedom Forum” send a greeting letter to all family members of political prisoners, including Yang Jianli’s wife Christina Fu on the International Women’s Day event.
03/09 Christina Fu’s sent out an urgent appeal for signatures on a Petition.
03/11 The campaign to collect signatures for Qing Shuijun and Yang Jianli ended. There were 402 people signed the petition.
03/12 Family members sent petition to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
03/16 Reporters Without Borders issued a statement to supports family’s appeal for release of Yang Jianli
03/26 Hundreds of supporters sent a petition letter to the Chinese National People’s Congress.
03/28 OCDC and Beijing Spring bring the case of Yang Jianli to AI Japan.
04/10 Pro-democracy activists protest in Los Angeles and asked for the release of Dr. Yang Jianli
04/16 Christina Fu heard about mistreatment of Yang Jianli in the detention center.
04/19 Congressmen Cox and Frank drafted a letter for U.S. Congress members to be sent to Hu Jintao asking for the release of Yang Jianli.
04/20 The State Department looked into reports that Yang Jianli has been mistreated in the Beijing prison.
04/20 Lawyer Mo Shaoping sent a letter to the Chinese Supreme People’s Prosecutor to report the prolonged detention without verdict.
04/21 yangjianli.com created a blog.
04/23 Report Without Borders called on the President of the European Parliament Pat Cox, to add his weight to the plea to free Yang Jianli.
04/24 Christina Fu appealed to Condoleezza Rice again.
04/25 All Saints Parish held a special service for its parishioner, Dr. Yang Jianli.
04/26 Members of Congress held Press Conference to commenmorte the second year anniversary of Yang Jianli’s detention. 67 legislators issued the warning in a letter to Hu as they marked the second year in detention of Yang Jianli. The US embassy in Beijing meanwhile has spoken directly with the Chinese government about Yang’s case, Republican Party lawmaker Christopher Cox said, citing Vice President Dick Cheney.
04/26 The Ovesea Chinese Democracy Coalition (Australia) issued demanding the Chinese government to release Yang Jianli.
04/27 “ChinaEWeekly” published a special issue for Yang Jianli. The Foundation for China in the 21st Century announced a new book on non-violence by Yang Jianli.
04/28 During the past week, 12 professors at Harvard University wrote letters to Hu Jintao individually and asked him to help release Yang Jianli.
05/03 Overseas Chinese Democracy Coalition (Europe) held demonstaration in Germany, asking for the release of Yang Jianli and all political prisoners.
05/12 Jared Ganser, attorney for Dr. Yang’s family, was invited to the Canadian parliament to testify the case of Yang Jianli.
05/13 China sentenced Yang Jianli to five years in jail for illegally entering the country and spying.
05/13 The National Security Council expressed concern over the verdict and the sentencing. The Bush administration expressed its concern and “deeply troubled” by the verdict and will continue efforts to obtain her husband’s release.US lawmakers held a press conference and condemned the five-year prison sentence.
05/13 Chinese Democratic Party (Euroupe) issued a statement condemning the sentence of Yang Jianli.
05/13 U.S. Senator Sam Brownback condemned the decision of the Chinese government to sentence Yang Jianli to five years in prison.
05/13 U.S. Senator Barbara A. Mikulski called the immediate release of Yang Jianli.
05/14 Foundation for China in the 21st Century issued a statement Condemning the verdict and sentence Yang Jianli.
05/14 Chinese Labor Party issued a statement condemning the sentence of Yang Jianli.
05/14 Reporters Without Borders reacted angrily to the sentence of Yang Jianli.
05/14 NED issued a democracy alert on the sentenced of Yang Jianli.
05/14 U.S. Embassy in Beijing contacted the Chinese governement and asked to release Yang Jianli.
05/17 Christina Fu received a copy of sentence.
05/18 Yang Jianli gave up his right to appeal and issued an statement.
05/19 Chinese Democracy Education Foundation condemned the sentence of Yang Jianli.
05/20 “Radio Freedon Asia” broadcasted a special program on Yang Jianli. Christina Fu was invited to talk about her husband.
05/25 Yang Jianli refuses to appeal sentence
05/28 Christina Fu wrote to support group and ask them to call the White House and for the administration¡¯s ongoing support and continuing intervention for Jianli¡¯s early release.
05/31 he Taiwan Association for Human Rights condemned the sentence of Yang Jianli.
06/01 Resolution introduced in US Congress slamming China for Tiananmen crackdown. The resolution singled out and sought the release of Yang Jianli.
06/01 Arthur Liu (Liu Junguo), a student leader from 1989’s pro-democracy uprising in China, has begun a hunger strike for Chinese democracy, for the release of all political prisoners in China, and for particular emphasis on the freedom of Yang Jianli. Yang’s 76-year-old mother, Yang Jiangue, joined several US-based student leaders of the Tiananmen Square protests in a public hunger strike in front of the Chinese embassy Tuesday to press Beijing to release all political prisoners in China. The elder Yang was on a 24-hour fast while the others are on a four-day hunger strike.
06/02 Yang Jianli’s sister Yang Jianhua joined the hunger strike with Arthur Liu.
06/03 Fu Xiang participated the candle light memorial organized by IFCSS in front of the Chinese Ambassy.
06/04 Resolution slamming China for Tiananmen crackdown was passed by 400:1.
06/09 Christina Fu called Jianli’s lawyer Mo Shaoping and learned that Yang Jianli was still detained at the old place.
06/10 Aaron Yang sent a postcard to daddy for Father’s Day.
07/10 Yang Jianjun went to Beijing to visit his brother Yang Jianli but his request was refused. Yang Jianli was still held in detention center.
07/21 Rep. Barney Frank and Res. Christopher Cox drafted another letter to the Chinese President Hu Jintao. It asked the Chinese authority to release Yang Jianli when he becomes eligible for parole later this year.
08/05 Senators Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) and Jon Kyl are respectively circulating a letter from the Senate to President Hu, asking for Jianli’s parole in October this year.
08/16 Yang Jianl’s new book “Non-violent struggle & consitutional reform” is published.
09/01 Yang Jianli is transfered to Tianhe prison in Beijing.
09/06 Yang Jianjun went to Beijing to visit his brother Yang Jianli but his request was refused. Yang Jianli was still held in detention center.
09/07 Congressmen Cox and Frank sent out another dear colleague letter urging members of Congress to co-sign a letter to be sent to the Chinese President Hu Jintao.
10/06 21 U.S. senators wrote a petition to Hu Jintao to grant Yang Jianli parole.
10/06 85 U.S. house representatives wrote a petition to Hu Jintao to grant Yang Jianli parole.
10/07 63 Harvard Scholars wrote a petition to Hu Jintao to grant Yang Jianli parole.
10/10 China insisted its jailing of Yang Jianli is in line with Chinese law and rejected appeals by American lawmakers for his release.
10/13 The president of Harvard University wrote to Yang Jiechi
11/02 Yang Jianjun went to Beijing and was allow to see Jianli for 20 minutes.
11/04 Christina Fu wrote to President Bush
11/23 Christina Fu wrote to Mrs. Bush
12/01 Yang Jianli is transfered to Beijing #2 prison. His sister in China received a notice.
12/04 Silicon Valley for Democracy in China (SVDC) organized its 15th Annual Greeting Card Campaign where we send holiday greeting cards to Chinese Political Prisoners including Yang Jianli.
12/14 Yang Jianli’s brother and sister met him at prison for about an hour.
12/14 Fu’s lawyer, Jared Genser sent a letter to Secretary of State Colin Powell and asked the U.S. government to urge the People’s Republic of China to release Yang on medical parole.
12/15 Professors at Harvard Medical School wrote a letter to National Security Adviser Condoleezza and asked her to continue her effort to secure Yang Jianli’s safe return.
12/18 80 parishioners at All Saints in Brookline sent a letter to National Security Adviser Condoleezza and asked her to continue her effort to secure Yang Jianli’s safe return.
12/23 Amnesty International appealed to all health professionals to write to the Chinese government for medical parole.
2005
01/06 Yang Jianli’s family doctor Bruce H. Churchill issued a proof that he had enjoyed good health previously.
01/07 Mo Shaoping wrote a letter to Beijing second prison to request a meeting with Yang Jianli.
01/16 The Foundation for China in the 21st Century wrote a letter to National Security Adviser Condoleezza and asked her to continue her effort to secure Yang Jianli’s safe return.
01/16 Christina Fu and Aaron Yang arrived in Beijing to meet Yang Jianli.
01/17 Christina Fu met with the U.S. Ambassador in Beijing.
01/17 Christina Fu with her son Aaron met Yang Jianli in prison.
01/18 Yang Jianli wrote his son. The is the only letter that his family recieved.
01/19 Freedom Now hosted a press conference with Chairman of the House Policy Committee Rep. Chris Cox (R-CA), Rep. Barney Frank (D-MA), and Christina Fu to commemorate Yang Jianli’s 1000th day in detention and to urge his medical parole.
01/19 Chairman of the Senate Policy Committee Senator Jon Kyl urges quick release of Chinese dissident Yang Jianli passing 1000th day in prison.
01/19 Rep. Mike Capuano Urges Chinese Governement to Release Dr. Yang Jianli.
01/24 Christina Fu wrote to the head of the second prison in Beijing, formally appealed for Yang Jianli’s medical parole.
01/25 Amnesty International Canadian Section, Vancouuver, wrote a letter to Weng Jiabao, asked him to help release Yang Jianli.
01/26 Christina Fu wrote a letter to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
01/27 Support Group asked members to write to Yang Jianli before the Chinese New Year.
02/02 Jared Genser presented right talk “Criminal Justice in China — The Case of Dr. Yang Jianli” at the Centre for Comparative and Public Law, Univ. of Hong Kong.
02/04 Christina Fu wrote a letter to Chinese president Hu Jintao and premier Wen Jiabao and asked for the release of Yang Jianli.
02/05 CCC-Club hosted a Chinese New Year party for families of democratic movement activists. Christina Fu was invited. The chairman of Chinese publican party Liu Junguo offered $500 to her.
02/08 Parents at Brookline Driscoll School launched a letter writing campaign for Dr. Yang Jianli.
02/08 The director of the office of Chinese and Mongolian Affairs of the State Department wrote to Dr. Haiden A. Huskamp of Harvard Univ.
02/08 Christina Fu wrote to Senator Joh Kyl to express her family’s gratitute.
02/23 Jared Genser wrote to Senator Richard Lugar (R-In), Chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
02/23 A staff at Beijing Judicial Bureau Lawyers Administration Section called Mo Shaoping to inform him that Beijing second prison rejected his request to meet Yang Jianli.
02/24 Yang Jianli wrote to to the chairman of Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Wu Bangguo.
02/25 Yang Jianli’s nephew visited him. It was found that Jianli’s sight dropped dramatically which indicated that his health is not deteriourating rapidly.
02/25 Senator Kennedy wrote to the Chinese Ambassador, urging the Chinese government to release Yang Jianli.
02/25 Senator Kennedy wrote to the U.S. Ambassador, urging him to get involved to free Yang Jianli on medical parole.
02/28 Rep. Barney Frank called the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
02/28 Rep. Barney Frank had his staff hand deliver a letter to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
02/28 Senator Richard Lugar (R-In), Chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee, went to the Chinese Embassy in Washington D.C. and mentioned Yang Jianli to the Chinese Ambassador Yang Jiechi.
02/28 The U.S. State Department published its annual report “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices” of 2004. It mentioned Yang Jianli 5 times.
03/07 Mo Shaoping wrote a letter to Beijing second prison again to request a meeting with Yang Jianli.
03/08 Christina Fu signed two open letter calling for the release of political prisoners.
03/09 U.S. Embassy conveyed Senator Kennedy’s letter to the Chinese government.
03/09 Christina Fu wrote to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
03/10 Xu Wenli submitted a list of political prisoners to the U.S. State Department. Yang Jianli is the 3rd on the list.
03/14 Acting director of the office of Chinese and Mongolian Affairs wrote to Christina Fu on behave of Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
03/17 The U.S. Embassy sent a reply to Senator Kennedy.
03/21 Rice raised Yang Jianli’s case to Li Zhaoxing.
03/25 Yang Jianli’s sister Yang Jianhua and brother Yang Jianjun visited Yang Jianli. She learned that Yang Jianli’s eye sight was indeed worsened. She also learned that his request to see his lawyer for a petition was still denied by the prison authority and he had not received any overseas mail since he was transferred there last December, despite hundreds of postcards were sent to him from our church and our kids schools, and his family; none of his letters to his wife or to his children ever reached them.
03/25 Yang Jianhua met with staffs in the U.S. Embassy.
03/25 Yang Jianhua met with Jianli’s lawyer Mo Shaoping and his assistant.
03/29 Mo Shaoping wrote a letter to Beijing Judicial Bureau Lawyers Administration Section to explain lawyer’s opinion.
04/15 Human rights groups at Los Angeles and San Diego demonstrated for human rights and release of Yang Jianli and other prisoners of conscience in front of the Los Angeles Peoples Republic of China Consulate.
04/24 Chinesenewsnet.com (Duo Wei) started to republish a series of articles about Yang Jianli before the 3rd anniversary of his arrest.
04/25 “ChinaEWeekly” published a special issue for Yang Jianli.
04/26 U.S. Congress marked the third anniversary of Yang Jianli’s detention in a Beijing prison.
04/26 A Concert was held in Brookline, MA to mark the third anniversary of Yang Jianli’s detention in a Beijing prison.
04/26 Senator Jon Kyl issued a statement to mark the third anniversary of Yang Jianli’s detention in a Beijing prison.
04/26 Rep. Chris Smith issued a statement to mark the third anniversary of Yang Jianli’s detention in a Beijing prison.
05/05 U.S. State Department sent a letter to Rep. Frank regarding Yang Jianli’s case.
05/06 Christina Fu wrote to the U.S. Ambassador Randt.
05/12 The U.S. Ambassador Rand informed the Foreign Ministry about the serious health situation of Yang Jianli’s mother.
06/15 A groups U.S. Representatives met with Chinese Ambassador Zhou Wenzhong on Yang’s matter.
06/15 A bipartisan group of 40 U.S. Senators (e.g., Kyl, Mikulski, Clinton, McCain, Kennedy, Dole) sent a letter to Chinese President Hu Jintao urging Yang’s release.
06/16 The U.S. Ambassador Randt wrote a letter back to Christina Fu.
06/17 Democracy Net published 38 poem of Yang Jianli written in prison from 2002 to 2005.
09/26 IFCSS held its 12th conference. It passed resolution to continue its effort to rescue Yang Jianli.
11/09 House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi along with Reps. Frank Wolf (R-Va.), Tom Lantos (D- Calif.), Mark Kennedy (R-Minn.), Chris Smith (R-N.J.) and members of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom held a press conference. They called for the release of Dr. Yang Jianli.
11/10 Yang Jianli’s attorney, Mo Shaoping, visited him in Beijing Prison No. 2. It was the first visit by his attorney since Yang Jianli’s verdict was issued on May 13, 2004.
11/16 A group of US Congress members wrote to President Bush and asked him to help release Yang Jianli on his trip to China.
11/24 Mr. Nowak, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, visited Yang Jianli in Beijing Prison No. 2.
12/10 Yang Jianli sent a letter to prison in order to protect prisoners’ rights.
2006
1/6 Yang Jianli’s attorney, Mo Shaoping, visited him in Beijing Prison No. 2.
1/10 Yang Jianli’s brother and nephew visited him in Beijing Prison No. 2. It was the first family visit since he was put on an “Intensive Training Team” in the prison on August 15, 2005.
4/6 IFCSS appeals to the Chinese government to release Yang Jianli.
4/10 119 US lawmakers urge Bush to raise Yang Jianli’s case.
4/23 The Oversea Chinese Democracy Coalition (Australia) protested at the Chinese consulate in Melbourne, demanding the release of Yang Jianli and Wang Bingzhang.
9/3 Yang Jianli was released on condition that he must leave from China immediately. But he insisted that he return to his hometown to to sweep his father’s tomb first. As a result, he was sent back to jail.
10/31 Dr. Yang’s wife and son visited him in Beijing Prison No. 2
2007
04/27 Yang Jianli completed a five-year prison sentence.
05/11 Accompanied by Mo Shaoping, Dr. Yang submitted his application for travel document.
08/18 Yang Jianli returned back to the United States.